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“As the most popular and distributed ethnic group in Yunnan, the Yi has a population of about 4.2 million and mainly live at Jinsha River, YuanJiang county and areas between Ailao and Wuliang mountains. Yi people have their own language and special marriage system. Tiger worship originates from their inhabited area-mountainous area because tiger is regarded as the king of the forest.

Torch festival is one of the grand festivals of Yi people, which will be held on June 24th of each year to celebrate their bumper heaviest and prosperity of coming year. Their bright colored costume and unique design become another temptation for tourists during the celebration.

The same as other southerners, Yi prefer more heavy taste food and more goat cheese which is good to keep them warm in forest.

Sani People, a branch of Yi, The girls have very good hands to do a lot of amazing embroidery or ornaments for their costumes. Two triangles on both sides of unmarried girls’ headdress provide more chances for your hands’ games.


Bai, which means pure and white in Chinese, is name of the modernist ethnic group in Yunnan. Their history goes back to Tang dynasty which is about 1200 years ago. With a population of about 1.4 million, they live in compact communities mainly in Dali Bai Autonomous prefectures which is featured by long history of over thousand years .Effected by Tang dynasty’s religious culture, some of Bai people worship Buddhism. They adore “Patron God’’, which means the domination of the local region. Forbidden to get marriage between people bearing of the same surname and has the name clan, Bai people usually adopt monogamy.

“The March Bazza” is the grandest festival of Bai people, which is held on march 15th of the lunar calendar and will last about five or ten days. During the festival, so many activities, such as going around the forest, horse racing and dragon boat racing will be held there. Cow cheese is a famous dish of them. Local milk is very good too because of cow farming there. A lot of fresh and healthy vegetables are available in Bai’s areas.

Compare with other ethnic groups, their costumes are formed only by two colors. Local people may choose white and any other one favorite color, which reflect their worship to white color-pure and peace.


The population of the Naxi is about 280 thousand and they live mainly in the Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County. Naxi people are one ethnic group with long history. Famous Dongba pictographic is the “only Completed and Living Pictograph” in the world now. Traditional Dongba sacrificial rites and beautiful ancient music will bring you to the ancient time. Until now, the Mosuo people who are living around Lugu Lake also remain the “Axia” marriage system, which is the visiting marriage system. .From their colorful costume, you can tell local girls getting up early and going back home very late there are very diligent.

The Sanduo festival on February 8 of each year on the lunar calendar is a grand memorial festival of Naxi people to show their greatest patron god-Apu Sanduo. In the festival, all Naxi people will put on their costumes and dance with the cheerful music played by the Lusheng and drums. Meanwhile, they will hold antiphonal sing meet and horse-racing.


There are about 20 thousand Tibetan in Yunnan. They mainly live in Diqing Tibwtan Prefecture and a few of them live in Lijiang, Gongshan, Yongsheng and Ninglang counties. The Tibetan People believe in Tibetan Buddhism. It is originated from the combination of Buddhisim and their own Ben sect. They regard the white as holy and secret and their highest etiquette is to present you white Hada. Costumes at the pastoral area and the one at the farming area are different. Traditional butter tea of Tibetan is peculiar. The local craft technology of Tibetan s is very outstanding especially in costume, article for personal adornment, vessels, weaving, environmental decorations, sacrificial utensil and the mask of offering. Because of the high inhabitant area, they like to eat more cheese and meat with strong alcohol to keep warm.

The Tibetan New Year is the most important festival at Yunnan Diqing Tibetan area. In the festival the Tibetan usually celebrates their prosperous and peaceful life. At the mean time, Tibetan traditional activities such as Guozhuang and Xianzi dance are very popular.


Compare with other ethnic groups, Dai people in Yunnan do enjoy their relaxing and green life.

The Dai has a population of about 1.07 million. They mainly distribute in Dehong Dai & Jingpo prefecture, Xishuangbanna Dai prefecture and basins along Lancang River. That’s why Dai people are divided as “Wet Dai’’, “Dry Dai” and “Huayao Dai”. The long cling skirt and beautiful flower ornaments show you the amazing shape of local girls. “Changing back man”----The Dai people all believe in Hinayana. So sending children to the temple and being a monk is honorable thing for Dai people. Most of Dai prefer to live lower and humid place where spicy and sour foods are more necessary.

Dai people are the ethnic group that adores water. They think the water is the symbol of luck and splash the water to wash away the dirty things. Besides this there will be activities like throwing pouches, sending fireworks, dragon boat racing and performances. Former premier Zhou participated the Water Splashing Festival in1961, which made it more popular. The festival will last three days in the regime where Dai people live.


With a population of about 120 thousand, the Jingpo people mainly live in Dehong Dai & Jingpo Autonomous. Jingpo men always in black or white turbans decorated with laces and pompons. They bring their long knives and hardbacks wherever they go. The women usually wear short coats with colorful beads, silver bulbs and silver pieces. The decoration makes sweet sound when they dancing.

“Munao-zongge”, which means “Group Dancing”, is the grandest traditional festival of Jingpo people. It is on the 15th of the first lunar month. During the festival, jingpo people wearing their best clothes will dance and sing around “Munaozong poles” and celebrate their own festival.


The population of Wa is about 360 thousand and they lived mainly in the Awa mountains of the Southern section area at the West of the Lancang River. The Ghost Plaza in the center of their village reflects their special point of nature that everything in the world has a spirit and the spirit would not die for ever.

From august 14th to august 16th of lunar calendar, Wa people will celebrate Xinmi festival that original means to take the first harvested corn to sacrifice and call the crop god to their home and bring them the harvest in the next year. During the festival, they will play wooden drum, hold sacrifice rites, sing and dance, have chicken rice, and drink rice wine.


Another ethnic group mostly living in the areas between the Red River and the Lancang River is Hani nationality. The population is about 1.3 million. Mushroom shaped residential house scattered in rice terraced fields attract more and more tourists from all over the world. The Hani are polytheists and they profess a special adoration toward the spirits of their ancestors. They are used to practicing rituals to venerate to the different gods and thus to obtain their protection. The traditional clothing of the Hani is used made out of dark blue fabric. The men dress in short jackets and in long wide pants. They also wear turbans which are white or black. The women dress is depend on which clan they belong to. There is no gender difference in the clothing of children under the age of seven. They play a wind instrument called the ebi (俄比) In each may of the lunar calendar, Hani people will celebrate Kuzaza festival, which is also called “June Year”. During the festival, the Hani people will hold various activities such as singing,dancing, offering sacrifices to the gods, playing Moqiu and visiting other villages..


About 730,000 Lisu people live in Lijiang, Baoshan, Nujiang, Diqing and Dehong prefectures in Yunnan Province. Lisu villages are usually built close to water to provide easy access for washing and drinking.[6]Their homes are usually built on the ground and have dirt floors and bamboo walls, although an increasing number of the more affluent Lisu are now building houses from wood or even concrete. 6Lisu practice a religion that is part animistic, part ancestor worship, but is mixed within complex local systems of place-based religion. Most of their important rituals are performed by shamans. .The main Lisu Festival corresponds to the Chinese New Year and is celebrated with music, feasting and drinking, as are weddings; people wear large amounts of silver jewelry and wear their best clothes at these times as a means of displaying their success in the previous agricultural year. In each traditional village there is a sacred grove at the top of the village, where the sky spirit.


The Zhuang are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. Some also live in the Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou and Hunan provinces. Their population estimated at 18 million people, puts them second only to the Han Chinese.They love salty and sour dishes like pickled cabbage, pickled vegetables and pork, dried fish. During festivals they make a dish called fang (zongzi) which is sticky rice, mushroom, pork and sour vegetables, wrapped in bamboo leaves and steamed. Traditionally, chief of Zhuang villages hosts rites to sacrifice the sun heaven, earth and water every year. They also sacrifice the ancestors and drink Bronze Drum wine.

The hardworking Zhuang people live an exciting life with festival through the whole year. There are two festivals per month averagely.


Lahu’s population is estimated at around 100,000. The traditional Lahu religion is polytheistic. Buddhism was introduced in the late 1600s and became widespread black and red are two major colors of their costumes.


Most Hui are similar in culture to Han Chinese with the exception that they practice Islam, and have some distinctive cultural characteristics as a result. For example, as Muslims, they follow Islamic dietary laws and reject the consumption of pork, the most common meat consumed in Chinese culture,and have also given rise to their variation of Chinese cuisine, Chinese Islamic cuisine and Muslim Chinese martial artst.


According to the 2000 census, the number of Miao in China was estimated to be about 9.6 million. Nowadays, the beautiful headdress and silver wears of Miao are very famous handicrafts of their areas.


Nu nationality’s population of 27,000 is divided into the Northern, Central and Southern groups. Their homeland is a country of high mountains and deep ravines crossed by the Lancang, Dulong and Nujiang rivers, and this area is rich in natural minerals. The name "Nu" comes from the fact that they were living near the Nujiang River, and the name of their ethnic group derives from there. (Nujiang is also called Nu river or Chinese: 怒江; pinyin: Nù Jiāng or Salween River.) The Nu build their houses made out of either bamboo-slips or wooden planks near the mountains, though houses made out of the latter type are more prevalent due to its better strength. Agriculture is their main occupation. The Nu celebrates mainly the tribal flower-fairy festival, which is mainly celebrated by the Nu in the Gongshan area of Yunnan province. According to the Chinese lunar calendar, the festival comes on the 15th of March annually and lasts three days.


Jinuo people live in Xishuangbanna in Yunnan.Jinuo people belong to the Loloish branch of the Tibeto-Burmese language family. According to SIL International, the two Jinuo languages, Youle (13,000 speakers) and Buyuan (1000 speakers) are not mutually intelligible. There is no official written form. Most Jino also speak one of the Dai languages and/or Chinese. province.


The Achang’s population is 27, 700, of whom 27,600 are from Yunnan province, especially Dehong Autonomous Prefecture. The Achang speak a Tibeto-Burman language called Achang, but there is no indigenous writing system to accompany it. Chinese characters are often used instead. Many Achang also speak the language of the Dai, mainly to make commercial transactions. A great part of the history and traditions of the Achang has been transmitted from generation to generation through music and songs. Music is one of the mainstays of their culture, and they usually finish all celebrations with songs and dances. The unmarried young people usually comb their hair with two braids that gather on their head. The typical clothes of the Achang vary according to village.


It is believed that the Shui are descended from the Luo-Yue that inhabited the southeast coast of China before the Han dynasty. Their name of Shui, which means "water", was adopted during the Ming dynasty. The Shuis are believers of polytheism. In former days a shaman would be employed to say prayers and animals slaughtered to be offered to evil spirits when someone fell ill or died or when something bad happened. Catholicism that came to the area in the late Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) won very few converts. The Shuis usually dress in black and blue. Men have long gowns and black s, and women wear collarless blue blouses, black trousers and aprons, all of which are embroidered. On festival occasions, the females put on skirts and a variety of silver earrings, necklaces and bracelets. They usually wear their hair in buns.


The Yaos, with a population of 2,637,421, live in mountain communities scattered over 130 counties in five south China provinces and one autonomous region. About 70 per cent of them live in the GuangxiZhuang Autonomous Region, the rest in Hunan, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou and Jiangxi provinces Festivals take place one after another in the Yao communities, at a rate of about once a month. Although festive customs alter from place to place, there are common celebrations such as the Spring Festival, the Land God Festival, the Pure Brightness Festival, "Danu" Festival and "Shuawang" Festival The Yaos worshipped a plethora of gods, and their ancestors. Their belief in "Panhu," the dog spirit, revealed a vestige of totems.


The number of De'ang people in China totals 17,935. Small as their population is, the people of this ethnic group are quite widely distributed over Yunnan Province. Like most people in the sub-tropical regions, the De'angs live in houses made of bamboo People dress in traditional costumes studded with silver ornaments. Men wear turbans. Monogamy is practiced. People of the same clan do not marry with one another. Intermarriage is rare with people of other ethnic groups.The De'angs are Hinayana Buddhists. Most villages have a temple. The monks live on the offerings of their followers. Their daily needs are provided by the villagers in turn.


The Blang people, numbering 91,882, live mainly in Mt. Blang, Xiding and Bada areas of Menghai County in the Xishuangbanna.Dai Autonomous Prefecture in southwestern Yunnan Province. The Blang people inhabit an area with a warm climate, plentiful rainfall, fertile soil and rich natural resources. The main cash crops are cotton, sugar-cane and the world famous Pu'er tea. The Blang ethnic group has a rich store of folk tales and ballads transmitted orally. Their songs and dances show the strong influence of their Dai neighbors. Elephant-leg drums, cymbals and three-stringed plucked instruments provide musical accompaniment for dancing. Blang people in Mountain area revel during their energetic "knife dance”.


The 33,600 Pumis are concentrated in the Yunnan Province counties of Lanping, Lijiang, Weixi and Yongsheng, as well as in the Yi Autonomous County of Ninglang. According to Pumi legends and historical records, ancient Pumis were a nomadic tribe, roaming the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Pumi women in Ninglang and Yongsheng often wrap their heads in large handkerchiefs, winding their plaited hair, mixed with yak tail hairs and silk threads. Pumi men wear similar clothes: linen jackets, loose trousers and sleeveless goatskin jackets. Pumis celebrate the beginning of Spring Festival (the Chinese Lunar New Year) and the 15th of the first month of the lunar calendar.


The Mongolians live mostly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, with the rest residing in Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Hebei, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan and Beijing. Mongolians owed their achievements in medical science, astronomy and calendar to the influence of the Hans and Tibetans Mongolians grow up on horsebacks and horses thus play an important part in their life. Every Mongolian loves to prove his worth by showing good horsemanship and archery as well as wrestling. Mongolians, men and women, wear cone-shaped hats in winter; they also like to wear silk or cloth turbans. Mongolians believed in shamanism in ancient times.  The Mongolians have been known as "a people of music and poetry." Their singing, sonorous, bold, passionate and unconstrained, is the true reflection of the temperament of the Mongolian people.


Their population of 6,000 is found in the Nujiang Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan province, in the Dulong valley. Another 600 can be found east of the Dulong valley, living in the mountains above the Nu Jiang (Salween River) near the village of Binzhongluo in northern Gongshan County. Although some Dulong have converted to Christianity, the vast majority continue to believe in their animist native religion. There is a belief that all the creatures have their own souls. Usually diverse sacrifices are made in order to calm down the malignant spirits. The role of the shaman is of great importance since they are the ones in charge of the rituals. During the celebrations of the Derung New Year, which is celebrated in the month of December of the lunar calendar, diverse animal sacrifices are celebrated to make an offering to the sky.

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With around 5,000 years history, china is considered as the single oldest uninterrupted civilization in the world. According to the recent census, china’s population has reach to 1.4 billion consists of 56 different nationalities.

9,560,900 square kilometers of the total territory makes China the 4th (or 5th USA is bigger than China according to some statistic ) biggest country in the world. It located in the eastern hemisphere, and extends about 5.000 kilometers from east to west and about 5,500 kilometers from north to south. The land boundary exceeds 20,000 kilometers. China share the border with Korea in the east, Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar in the south, India, Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal in the southwest, Pakistan and Afghanistan towards the west, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan and Tajikistan towards the northwest and Mongolia towards the north.

In terms of weather, the major place of China normally influenced by the cold and dry air from Siberia in winter and hot and humid air from Pacific in summer Topographically, China is high in the west and low in the east, therefore, the major rivers are all flow from west to east. Beside, China, at present, generally, is a mountainous country with hills, valleys, and plateaus took about 2/3 of the total territory.

For the purpose of administration, China is divided into 23 provinces(Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Shangdong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and Taiwan), 5 minority autonomous regions(Tibet, Xijiang, Guangxi, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia ), 4 municipalities directly under the Central Government (Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Chongqing) and 2 special administrative regions(Hong Kong and    Macau).

People’s Republic of China is the full name of China now Beijing is the present capital city of China, as well as the political and cultural center.

The national flag of China is the ‘Five-star red flag’

The national emblem of China is centered by Tian’anmen Rostrum in the shine of five stars, encircled by grains and a gear, which fully expresses the constitutional category of what the PRC is.

The national anthem is the ‘March of the Volunteers.’

Period Dynasty Durations Founder capital City today
Primitive society Five emperors 26th – 21st BC      
Slavery society Xia
Spring & autumn
21st – 17th BC
17th – 11th BC
11th – 771 BC
770 -256 BC
770- 476 BC
Wu Wang
Ping Wang
Yang Cheng
Feudal Society  Warring periods
Western Han
Eastern Han
3 kingdoms Wei
3 kingdoms Shu
3 kingdoms Wu
West Jin
East Jin
South dynasty
North dynasty
10 kingdoms
North Song
South Song
West Xia
475 – 221    BC
221 – 206 BC
206 BC – 8 AD
8 -23 AD
25- 220 AD
220 – 265 AD
221 – 263 AD
229 – 280 AD
265 - 316 AD
317 – 420 AD
420 – 589 AD
386 – 534 AD
581 – 618 AD
618 – 907 AD
907 – 960 AD
960 – 1127
1127 – 1279
916 – 1125
1038 – 1227
1115 – 1234
1271 – 1368
1368 – 1644
1644 - 1840
  Yin Zheng
Liu Bang
Wang Mang
Liu Xiu
Cao Pi
Liu Bei
Sun Quan
Sima Yan
Sima Rui   Yang Jian
Li Yuan Zhao Kuangyin
Zhao Gou
Yelv abaoji
Li Yuanhao
Wanyan aguda
Kublai khan
Zhu Yuanzhang
Nuer Hachi
Jian Ye
Luo yang
Jian Kang   Da Xing
Chang’an Kai Feng
Shang Jing
Xing Qing
Zhong Du
Da Du
Nan Jing
Bei Jing
Luoyang   Xi’an
Xi’an Kaifeng
Semi feudal semi colonized society Warlords period
1840 – 1911
1912 - 1949
  Sun Yat sim     Beijing
Socialism PRC 1949 - today Mao Zedong   Beijing

   Luna Calendar

the Luna Calendar is based on the cycle of the moon, This means the first day of each month beginning at midnight is the day of the astronomical dark moon. (Note, however, that a "day" in the Chinese calendar begins at 11 p.m. and not at midnight).

Each year has 12 regular months, which are numbered in sequence (1 to 12) and have alternative names. Every second or third year has an intercalary month (traditional Chinese: 閏月; simplified Chinese: 闰月; pinyin: rùnyuè), which may come after any regular month. It has the same number as the preceding regular month, but is designated intercalary.

Luna calendar and solar calendar are both using at present in China. the solar calendar is Used in the daily lift in order to connect the world without barrier, at the same time, all the traditional festival and Chinese Zodiac are still followed the Luna calendar.

Chinese people mark the year by 12 animals, and according to the Luna Calendar , the Chinese new year (Chun jie 春节) is the beginning of this Luna year, as well as the beginning of the year of the this animals.

The other system by which years are marked historically in China was by the stem-branch or sexagenary cycle. This system is based on two forms of counting: a cycle of 10 Heavenly Stems and a cycle of 12 Earthly Branches. Each year is named by a pair of one stem and one branch called a Stem-Branch (干支 gānzhī). The Heavenly Stems are associated with Yin Yang and the Five Elements. Recent 10-year periods began in 1984, 1994, and 2004. The Earthly Branches are associated with the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Each Earthly Branch is also associated with an animal, collectively known as the Twelve Animals. Recent 12-year periods began in 1984, 1996 and 2008.

The following form is the ‘correspondence between 2 systems’
Gānzhī (干支) Year of the... Continuous Gregorian New Year's Day (chūnjié, 春節)
wùyín (戊寅) Tiger 4695 1998 January 28
jǐmăo (己卯) Rabbit 4696 1999 February 16
gēngchén (庚辰) Dragon 4697 2000 February 5
xīnsì (辛巳) Snake 4698 2001 January 24
rénwǔ (壬午) Horse 4699 2002 February 12
guǐwèi (癸未) Sheep 4700 2003 February 1
jiǎshēn (甲申) Monkey 4701 2004 January 22
yǐyǒu (乙酉) Rooster 4702 2005 February 9
bǐngxū (丙戌) Dog 4703 2006 January 29
dīnghài (丁亥) Pig 4704 2007 February 18
wùzǐ (戊子) Rat 4705 2008 February 7
jǐchǒu (己丑) Ox 4706 2009 January 26
gēngyín (庚寅) Tiger 4707 2010 February 14
xīnmăo (辛卯) Rabbit 4708 2011 February 3


Once upon a time. Tiger, the king of the forest. Lion the king of the animal. Phoenix the queen of the bird. Came to the Jade Emperor(the lord of the world) said: dear lord, look what human did to our subjects, the kill them, eat them, take their residence away, we would rise the strongest protest about what they did to us. Hearing this, Jade Emperor decided to do something to protect them. Then he said to the 3 kings and queens, 3 days later, he will held a competition, the 1st ten animals will win the award to be protected eternally by god. On that day, all creatures gathered at  the gate of south gate(the entrance of heaven), tried to fight for the 1st ten animals rush in to south gate. With the bell ringing, the completion began. In an few second, the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, cock all reached to the finish line one and after, “GOU’LE” the emperor shouted, which means “enough” but same pronunciation as “GOU” means “dog”, then the clerk write dog down as the 11th animal. Then the emperor shouted again “ZU’LE” which means “enough” too, but same pronunciation as “ZHU” which means “PIG”, then the clerk write pig down as the 12th animal. Finally, clerk realized the game is over, he handed the list. An emperor’s words has to be executed without any discount, therefore, 1st ten changed into 1st 12. The 12 animals of Chinese Zodiac then formed.

The following form is the list of correspondence between 12 animals and solar years.

Rat Ox Tiger Rabbit Dragon Snake Horse Sheep Monkey Cock Dog Pig
1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935
1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947
1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031


Generally speaking, Chinese festival can be divide into 3 parts: the modern festival, the traditional festival and the minority festival.

The following forms are the list of all the festival.

The modern festival

Name Date* note
New year 1st Jan 1 day public vacation
Women’s day 8th Mar 1/2 day public vacation for women
Labor’s day 1st May 3 days public vacation (golden week*)
Children’s day 1st Jun 1 day public vacation for children
Establishment of CPC’s*  day 1st Jul  
Anniversary of the return of Hong Kong 1st Jul 1 day public vacation for HK citizen
Establishment of PLA’s*  day 1st Aug  
Teachers’ day 10th Sep  
National day 1st Oct 3 days public vacation (golden week)
Anniversary of the return of Macau 20th Dec  

Date: the date is based on Gregorian calendar.

CPC: Communist Part of China

PLA: People’s Liberation Army

Golden week: tourist golden week, at Chinese new year, labor’s day, National day and the Mid autumn day. the public vacation will always last at least a week, in order to stimulate the economy, the central government has made some policies such as give extra bonus, lower the tour price, to encourage people to travel or consuming during these 3 vacations.

The traditional festival

Name Date Note
Spring festival 1st of the 1st Luna month Chinese new year
Lantern’s festival 15th of the 1st Luna month  
Tomb sweeping  festival 5th Apr (Gregorian calendar)  
The dragon boat festival 5th of the 5th Luna month  
Dual 7 lover’s day 7th of the 7th Luna month Chinese Valentine’s day
Mid Autumn day 15th of the 8th Luna month Eat the moon cake

The main minority’s festival

Minority name Festival location date
Yi Torch festival Yunnan, Sichuan  
Bai 3rd month street fair Yunnan  
Hani Long street banquet Yunnan  
Dai Water splashing festival Yunnan  
Miao Flower mountain fair Yunnan, Guizhou  
Hui Corban festival Yunnan  
Naxi San duo festival Yunnan  
JingBo Mu’nao’zong’ge Yunnan  
Tibet Losar Festival Yunnan, Tibet  
Tibet Horse racing fair Yunnan, Tibet  
Mongolia Nadam Fair Yunnan, Inner Mongolia  
Zhuang Zhuang’s new year Yunnan, Guangxi  
Lisu Kuoshi festival Yunnan  
Qiang Qiang’s new year Sichuan  


China has been a multi-nationalities country for centuries, in the late 1949, after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the central government then sorted all nationalities in China into 56 different groups after a long term of investigation and information collection. Among them, “Han” is the majority for it taken about 90% of the total population, and the rest of 55 groups are the minorities, for it takes about 10% of the total population.

The following form is the list of all the nationalities

English name  


Population   Major habitation
Han Hàn Zú 1,230,117,207 -
Zhuang Zhuàng Zú 16,178,811 Guangxi, Yunnan
Manchu Mǎn Zú 10,682,263 Liaoning
Hui Huí Zú 9,816,802 -
Miao Miáo Zú 8,940,116 Guizhou, Yunnan
Uyghurs Wéiwúěr Zú 8,399,393 Xinjiang
Tujia Tǔjiā Zú 8,028,133 Hunan
Yi Yí Zú 7,762,286 Yunnan, Sichuan
Mongols Měnggǔ Zú 5,813,947 Inner Mongolia
Tibetan Zàng Zú 5,416,021 Tibet, Yunnan, Sichuan
Buyi Bùyī Zú 2,971,460 Guizhou
Dong Dòng Zú 2,960,293 Guizhou, Guangxi
Yao Yáo Zú 2,637,421 Guangxi, Hunan, Yunnan
Korean Cháoxiǎn Zú 1,923,842 Jilin, Liaoning
Bai Bái Zú 1,858,063 Yunnan
Hani Hāní Zú 1,439,673 Yunnan
Kazakh Hāsàkè Zú 1,250,458 Xinjiang
Li Lí Zú 1,247,814 Yunnan
Dai Dǎi Zú 1,158,989 Yunnan
She Shē Zú 709,592 Fujian, Zhejiang
Lisu Lìsù Zú 634,912 Yunnan
Gelao Gēlǎo Zú 579,357 Guizhou
Dongxiang Dōngxiāng Zú 513,805 Gansu
Gaoshan Gāoshān Zú 458,000 Taiwan
Lahu Lāhù Zú 453,705 Yunnan
Sui Shuǐ Zú 406,902 Guizhou, Guangxi
Va Wǎ Zú 396,610 Yunnan
Nakhi Nàxī Zú 308,839 Yunnan
Qiang Qiāng Zú 306,072 Sichuan
Tu Tǔ Zú 241,198 Qinghai, Gansu
Mulao Mùlǎo Zú 207,352 Guangxi
Xibe Xíbó Zú 188,824 Xinjiang, Liaoning
Kyrgyz Kēěrkèzī Zú 160,823 Xinjiang
Daur Dáwòěr Zú 132,394 Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang
Jingpo Jǐngpō Zú 132,143 Yunnan
Maonan Màonán Zú 107,166 Guangxi
Salar Sǎlá Zú 104,503 Qinghai
Blang Bùlǎng Zú 91,882 Yunnan
Tajik Tǎjíkè Zú 41,028 Xinjiang
Achang Āchāng Zú 33,936 Yunnan
Pumi Pǔmǐ Zú 33,600 Yunnan
Ewenki Èwēnkè Zú 30,505 Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang
Nu Nù Zú 28,759 Yunnan
Jing Jīng Zú 22,517 Guangxi
Jino Jīnuò Zú 20,899 Yunnan
De'ang Déáng Zú 17,935 Yunnan
Bonan Bǎoān Zú 16,505 Gansu
Russian Éluōsī Zú 15,609 Xinjiang
Yugur Yùgù Zú 13,719 Gansu
Uzbeks Wūzībiékè Zú 12,370 Xinjiang
Monba Ménbā Zú 8,923 Tibet
Oroqen Èlúnchūn Zú 8,196 Inner Mongolia
Derung Dúlóng Zú 7,426 Yunnan
Tatars/Dada Tǎtǎěr Zú 4,890 Xinjiang
Hezhe Hèzhé Zú 4,640 Heilongjiang
Lhoba Luòbā Zú 2,965 Tibet


Strictly speaking, religion topic in China has to be divided into 2 aspects: the Han’s religion and the minorities’ religion.

As far as the Han’s religion, before the foreign religion was introduced into China, Chinese Han people had been carried out the “Ancestor worship” for thousands years. According to ancient law, the highest King of China, also called the Son of Heaven (Tianzi), sacrificed to Heaven (Tian or Shangdi), Earth (Di) and other gods especially the gods of famous mountains and rivers. Seigneurs or officials were accredited to sacrifice to respective gods.

During the Tang Dynasty (7th century), after Buddhism, Christianity, Islam introduced into China, foreign religions (Buddhism especially) rose to predominance in China.

Under the permit and even, encouragement of central government. More and more people gradually took those foreign religions as their belief.

But, as a result of the agriculture society of Chinese Han region, people still used to take their own families as the most important or the biggest political unit, “ancestor worship” was still the most important belief for Chinese Han people.

Consequently, Chinese Han people’s point of view of religions can be characterized by pluralism, unlike western or some minorities’ religions, do not demand the exclusive adherence of members. Some scholars question the use of the term "religion" in reference to Buddhism and Daoism, and suggest "cultural practices" or "thought systems" as more appropriate names. The questions of who should be called religious in China, and what religion or religions they should be called are up to debate. Generally, the percentage of people who call themselves religious in China have been the lowest in the world. Buddhism remains the largest organized religion in China since its introduction in the 1st century.

As far as minorities, most of them have their own primitive believes in the old times (such as the Shaman religion, the nature worship, the witchcraft , the Voodoo). After the foreign religions introduced into China, some minorities gradually merged their own religions with this foreign religions and formed a new religion, such as : Tibetan people, Bai people and Dai people. Some accepted and took as their own believes, such as : Lisu people and Nu people took catholic as their religions. Some minorities are merged into one ethnic-group due to the same belief, such as the Hui people.


Buddhism was founded in India in the 6th century BC by Siddhartha Gautama, the son of a King and member of the Kshatriya caste near the present border of India and Nepal.

Buddhism believe that, all creatures are born in sorrow, and this sorrow existed during all your past life, present life and future life and on and on. The cause of this eternal sorrow is desire, especially the desire of the body, the desire for personal fulfillment, the removal of the eternal sorrow can only come from the removal of desire, that is to say, that happiness can only be achieved if these desire are overcome. If all these desire were overcome, one is considered to reach to “Nirvana”, the way to reach to “Nirvana” is to follow what Buddha says and what Buddha does, to believe in Buddhism.

Buddhism had existed for more than 1400 years, it has influence many countries in the world, so far in China, there are there big different sects of Buddhism in China, they are: Mahayana(Chinese Buddhism also wide spread in Japan, Korea, Lao and Vietnam), Hinayana (Pali Buddhism, also wide spread in Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia ) and Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism, also wide spread in Nepal)


The name of Islam is derived from the word “salam” with the connotation of “peace which comes by surrendering to God”. Islam was founded by the Arab prophet, Mohammed. For people of Islamic faith, there is only one God, Allah. The name derives from joining “al” means “the”, “lah” means “God”.

Islam was first introduced into China in about 7th century by the way of “silk road” and the communications between China and Arabic countries.

There are mainly 2 ethnic-groups believes in Islam, who are : Hui people and Uygur people.

Catholic & Christianity

Catholic was first introduced into China at 7th century A.D, after the Opium War, 1840, it widely spread all over China. Now there are more than 500 million Catholic disciples, 4000 priests and other stuff, with 4600 churches and other religious sites in China.

Christianity was first introduced into China at 19th century A.D, 1840, after the Opium War, it widely spread all over China. Now there are more than 1600 million disciples, 18,000 priests and other stuff, with 12,000 churches and 25,000 religious sites in China.

   Chinese Philosophy (Confucianism & Daoism/Taoism)

Confucianism and Daoism can be treated as the basic structure of Chinese philosophy system.


“Dao” means “the way, the right way”. Daoism in China is considered as religion as well as one sect of philosophy.

Emperor Qin ShiHuang, the emperor of Qin Dynasty had a great passion and eagerness of looking for the way to become immortal. Therefore, during his period, everyone, from the prime minister to the ordinary housewife, was very interesting in finding and trying all ways to gain eternal life from both physical ways and mental ways. This is the ancestral form of Daoism—the way to make ones archive longevity.

Laozi, one of the greatest philosopher in China, the author of DaoDeJing (Tao Te Ching) lived in the 6th century BC in China, is considered as the founder of Daoism. His book, DaoDeJing, had gave birth to the religion as well as the philosophy—Daoism. The second sacred text is the book of parables by ZhuangZi, which expresses Daoist ideas allegorically.

In philosophy way, Daoism emphasizes strongly that ones should live with nature in harmony which means that ones should deal with his situation by cooperating with the nature instead of fighting against it. Similarly, it teaches that man should control himself by trusting rather than opposing his own natural feelings and instincts. And Daoism believe that, objects in the world always have two aspects, Yin and Yang, only ones can keep this to aspects of objects in perfectly balance, can they gain eternal or at least longer life.

Yin & Yang

In religion aspect, Daoism has merged a lot with the Buddhism, in terms of god. The different is, Daoism has god for almost everything—the sun, the moon, the heaven, the earth, the water, kitchen, the door. And the system of gods’ world is very similar to the mortal’s government, you may find all the mortal’s government’s positions in the Daoism god world, such as Jade Emperor, the highest god in Daoism just like the emperor in mortal’s world.


There is a saying, you can not know about Chinese people and their culture for real without knowing Confucianism. it has been more than thousands years, Confucianism still influence the Chinese people and society from almost every aspects.

Confucius, the founder of Confucianism, the greatest philosopher, greatest sage, and the greatest educator in the Chinese history, was born at Qufu of Kingdom of Lu which is Shangdong province today in about 551 B.C. and died in 479 B.C at the age of 72 or 73. which is during the Chinese Spring & Autumn period.

In Chinese Confucius is called “KongFuZi, Kongqiu”, ‘Confucius’ was the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci of the seventeenth century who called him so, and this Latinate name has since became known to the west .

Confucianism was founded by Confucius, it is a philosophy that influence not just China but also many other countries in East Asia, such as: Japan, Korea, Vietnam Singapore. It might be considered a state religion of some East Asian countries, because of governmental promotion of Confucian values. It is a philosophy that mainly focuses on human morality and wrong action. It is a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious.

Confucianism is a complex philosophy that can be roughly divided into Humanity, Ritual, Social Relationship & Education.


The right way to be a person, is to be a ‘real gentlemen (in Chinese is ‘JunZi’)’, and one should have:

  1. always cultivate himself morally;
  2. kind and benevolent to others;
  3. filial piety (Xiao 孝), which means father to son, husband to wife, big brother to younger brother, there is no equal but Obedience, absolutely Obedience of the younger one to the older one is considered as filial piety;
  4. loyalty (Zhong, 忠), another filial piety, but it focus more on the relationship between rulers and subjects.

If you don’t have those character above, you would be treated as a “mean person(XiaoRen)”, which is the opposite of ‘real gentelmen’.

Ritual(Li 礼)

This term ‘ritual (Li, 礼)’ set the whole set of ceremonies behavior, procedures and contents, as well as the individuals’ behavior, such as the way of talking, the way of dressing, sitting, eating so forth. It has clearly formulated all the subjects’ social character, thereby, a solid and unchangeable social status system has been formed.

Social Relationships(Ren )

Relationships are central to Confucianism. Particular duties arise from one's particular situation in relation to others. The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: as a junior in relation to parents and elders, and as a senior in relation to younger siblings, students, and others. While juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence, seniors also have duties of benevolence and concern toward juniors. This theme of mutuality is prevalent in East Asian cultures even to this day.

Social harmony—the great goal of Confucianism—therefore results in part from every individual knowing his or her place in the social order, and playing his or her part well. When Duke Jing of Qi asked about government, by which he meant proper administration so as to bring social harmony, Confucius replied:

There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son.


Before Confucius, the education opportunity is not for everyone except the children from the noble families. Confucius spent his life to let people know that “no discrimination in educations” by his saying and his activities.

It was said that Confucius had more than 3000 students in his life time, and , a lot of them has became great philosopher, strategist, educator. And he also left a lot classic saying.

The theory and thoughts of Confucius and Confucianism are contained in nine ancient Chinese works handed down mainly by his disciples and their students, these nine work normally divided into two parts: the ‘Five Classics’ and the ‘the Four Books’

The ‘Five Classics’, which originated before the time of Confucius, consist of the following works: ‘The Yijing (Classic of changes)’, ‘Shujing (Classic of History)’, ‘Shijing(Classic of Poetry)’, ‘Liji (Classic of Rites)’ and ‘Chun Qiu (spring and Autumn Annuals)’ .

The ‘Four Books’ compilations of the saying of Confucius and Mencius and of commentaries by followers on their teachings, are ‘Lunyu (the Analects of Confucius)’, a collection of maxims of Confucius that form the basis of his moral and political philosophy; ‘Daxue (the Great Learning)’ and ‘Zhongyong (the Doctrine of the Mean)’ containing some of Confucius philosophical utterances arranged systematically with comments and expositions by his disciples and ‘Mengzi (The Book of Mencius)’ containing the teaching of one of Confucius’ great followers.

   Beijing Opera & Acrobats

Beijing Opera

Beijing Opera is the most famous theatrical form in China among hundreds of local opera. It is a comprehensive form that contains music, poem, songs, painting masks, singing, recitation, dancing, acrobats, and martial arts. Jackie Chen, the famous Kungfu movie star was an actor in a Beijing Opera Band in Hong Kong. Consequently, to be a good actor of Beijing Opera, he/she has to learn to sing, dance, fight, recitation and so forth, so it is always a very hard and long process to train an actor, since that, there is a saying in Beijing Opera ‘1 minutes performance on the stage needs 10 years exercise under the stage’

There are 5 basic skills in Beijing Opera, which are the first step to be an actor or the corner stone to be a star.

Singing(chang, 唱)

Recitation(nian, 念)    

Acting & Posing(zuo, 做)

Fighting(da, 打)

There are 5 main characters in Beijing Opera, which can be acted as different sex, age, social status, and profession of the character.

Sheng : it refers to male roles. Subdivided into ‘Laosheng (middle-aged or old men)’, ‘Xiaosheng (young men)’ and ‘Wusheng (men with martial skills)’

Dan 旦: it refers to female roles. Subdivided into ‘LaoDan (middle-aged or old women)’ ‘QingYi (a woman with a strict moral code)’, ‘DaoMaDan (women with martial skills)’

Jing : it refers to the roles with painted faces. They are usually warriors, heroes, statesmen or even demons. Sometimes it subdivided into ‘WenJing (civilian type)’, and ‘WuJing (warrior type)’

Mo :a character passed down from some old opera, it gradually vanished, some times middle-aged man with beard can be recognized as Mo.

Chou 丑:  it refers to clown, who is a comic character and can be recognized at first sight for his special make-up (a patch of white paint on his nose), subdivided into ‘WenChou (civilian clown) ’ and ‘WuChou (clown with martial skills)’

Chinese acrobatics

Modern Chinese acrobatics is an art form merged with Chinese traditional acrobatic, western circus, magic and gymnastics, which is regarded as one of the most treasurable art in China after more than 2,000 years of development.

Since Han Dynasty, acrobatics had been formed a very complete system.

In Tang Dynasty, acrobatics perfectly absorbed the spirit of acting form from old times, and, merged with some tricks from foreign countries which had build up a solid cornerstone for the development of modern acrobatics.

In Song Dynasty, acrobatics had stepped from only for the royal family into the folk society, and became a very popular activities among ordinary people.

After the establishment of PRC, under the effort of the central government and perfect folk foundation, many skills and types of acrobatics has been recollected, resorted and further redeveloped systematically. The first state-run acrobatics troupe has been built up in early 1950, with the development of the Chinese economy, now, there are already more than 60 state-run big scale acrobatics build up and thousands of private acrobatic show troupe with more than 100,000 actors and actress can be found in China.

Some famous activities are:

Lion dancing on top of rolling globes or balls.

Tightrope walking

Contortion acrobatics

Balancing act while playing Chinese yo-yo

Shaolin monks resisting projectiles

Extreme kung fu demonstrations

unicycle with bowls balancing

Multi Plate balancing

Tricks involving smaller animals Fire breathing

   Martial arts

Chinese martial arts, also known as ‘WuShu 武术’ ‘Kung Fu 功夫’, developed from the ancient people’s self-defense activity to an complex activity consists of bare-handed move, weapon move, physical body exercise and mental body exercise. It is one of the most popular activities now in China for the purpose of entertainment, sport, art and exercise.

There are many different style of martial arts in China now which were divided into different ‘Families 家’ ‘Sects 派’ ‘Schools 门’. Some famous styles are : ‘Shaolin 少林’ which is now in Songshan Mountain, Henan Province, ‘Wudang 武当’ which is now in Wudangshan Mountain, Hubei Province. ‘YongChun/Wing Chun 咏春’ which is created by a very famous martial art master : YeWen, also known as the master of Bruce Lee(李小龙), it was born in Canton and now can be said as the most popular martial art sect all over the world.

Each fighting style offers a different approach to the common problems of self defense, health, and self-cultivations from a Chinese perspective.

Chinese martial arts emphasized that, playing martial art need to seek the balance of internal and external body, which means after one can be called a martial art master he/she was not just have a very strong body and handy movement but also very strong internal system (includes the perfect heart, spirit, mind, breathing and strength)

In terms of philosophical way, that in China, it was said that the right purpose of playing martial is not to use the violence instead of self-healthy, self-defense, help out the others from violence or trouble and contribute to the world with ones ability.

Qi ,Qi Gong & Tai chi        

The concept of qì or chi (气), the inner energy or "life force" that is said to animate living beings, is encountered in almost all Chinese martial arts. Internal styles are reputed to cultivate its use differently than external styles.

One's qi can be improved and strengthened through the regular practice of various physical and mental exercises known as qigong. Though qigong is not a martial art itself, it is often incorporated in Chinese martial arts and, thus, practiced as an integral part to strengthen one's internal abilities.

There are many ideas regarding controlling one's qi energy to such an extent that it can be used for healing oneself or others: the goal of medical qigong. Some styles believe in focusing qi into a single point when attacking and aim at specific areas of the human body. Such techniques are known as dim mak and have principles that are similar to acupressure . There are many martial art shape that created only for the exercise of ‘Qi’, among them ‘Tai chi’ is the most famous and popular one both in China and abroad.


It is said that one of the luckiest thing in the world is to have a Chinese cooker. That truly reflect that how great reputation of Chinese food in the world. Look at all the Chinese restaurants now scattered around the corner of the world, you will not deny that the temptation and great achievement of Chinese food now possessed any more.

In China, cooking is an art. Quite different from western cooking where recipes are followed strictly like laboratory instructions, Chinese cooking always allows for a creative and stylistic touch to it. While in Western cooking the recipe is the key to success in any culinary attempt, in Chinese cooking the experienced and well seasoned chef is the guarantee. That is why restaurants, big or small, would always boast of their chefs as well as advertise their dishes.

‘colorful’ ‘varied’, ‘delicious’, and ‘complex’ are often used to describe Chinese food. Great attention is paid to aesthetic appreciation of the food because the food should be good not only in flavor and smell, but also in color and appearance.

Normally, Chinese cuisine can be divided into 4 major style.


Main Ingredient: chilli, pepper, chilly oil

Flavor: hot, tongue-numbing sometimes sweet & sour

Representative food: Spicy Diced Chicken with peanuts, Twice Cooked Pork Slice, Fish-flavor Pork, Pockmarked Woman’s Bean Curd    


Main Ingredient: seafood

Flavor: fresh, light, tasty

Representative food: Deep-fried Red-scale Fish. Yellow River Carp in Sweet and Sour Sauce, Stewed Sea Cucumber


Main Ingredient: seafood, wild animals (could be anything such as snake, cat, monkey)

Flavor: sweet, fresh, tender, and lightly seasoned.

Representative food: Roast Suckling Pig, Duck Web in Oyster Sauce, and Braised Chicken Feet with Wild Herbs.


Main Ingredient: seafood

Flavor: sweet, light, fresh

Representative food: Crystal Pork, Braised Shark Fin in Brown Sauce, Simmered Pork Head, Eel and Crab Meat in Crab Shells, and West Lake in Vinegar Sauce.

There are also featured Buddhist and Muslim sub-cuisines within the greater Chinese cuisine, with an emphasis on vegetarian and halal -based diets respectively.

   Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

Traditional Chinese medicine has been developed in China from thousands years of human’s adjustment, struggling and recognition to the nature. That makes TCM a theory of the balancing of man and nature.

TCM practices include such treatment as herbal medicine, animal material, acupuncture, dietary therapy and massage therapy.

TCM’s major theory include those of ‘Yin (negative)’ and ‘Yang (positive)’, the ‘five elements*’, ‘human body channel system ’ and ‘organ theory’. All the diagnosis of disease and treatment means are based on those theories. That is to say, when a diagnosis is indentified, the treatment will always emphasized to seeking a treatment that can cure ones body as well as keep the balance of ‘Yin and Yang’ and ‘the five elements’ of ones body, instead of only focus on the ill part.

For example, if ones had a headache, the treatment will focus on stopping your headache as well as prevent the other healthy body from hurting by this treatment.

There are 4 major treatment method, which is Looking ‘wang (望)’: especially to check the color of your face, eyes and tongue,sickness will make these organ present different color.

Smelling ‘wen (闻)’ : to smell ones body, sometimes the smell of drops.

Asking ‘wen (问)’ : to ask ones feeling, how long does the symptom last, so force.

Pulse testing ’qie (切)’ to test ones pulse and to analyze the symptom and adjust treatment.

*five elements:

the basic element that what this world consists of, they are ‘Gold, Timber, Water, Flame, Soil ’

   Silk Road and Tea-Horse Road

This term ‘ Silk Road’ was first mentioned by a German phrase ‘die seiderstrasse’ named by a German geologist Ferdiand Von Richthofen in his article <China, Ergerbnisse Eigener Reisen>            (China, My Individual Travelling Achievement) published in 1877.

In a broad sense, ‘Silk Road’ is a generic name for all the long distance trading and culture exchange route that scattered all over Eurasia continent, includes maritime silk road and south silk road. 

In a narrow sense, ‘Silk Road ’ indicate the ancient path that developed by Chinese envoy Zhang Qian and his team in Emperor WuDi period of Western Han Dynasty (181 B.C), from Chang’an (xi’an today) via Gansu, XinJiang, to Central Asia, Middle Asia, and connected the continental route of Mediterranean sea countries.

Since the silk from China was the most famous and most important cargo on this route, ‘Silk Road ’ therefore recognized as the official name for the scientific and history reaching.

South Silk Road

With the development of the ‘Silk Road’, Han’s envoy Zhang Qian arrived at Daxia (east of Iran) kingdom. At the market there he found that there are several goods are from China but definitely not the central area, such as bamboo, Shu Embroidery (an embroidery from Sichuan Today). Consequently, he believed that there must be another route from China to western. This route he mentioned was as a matter of fact the ‘South Silk Road’. As time went by, an big area along ‘Silk Road’ had been destroyed or naturally disappeared by the desertification and chaos, ‘Silk Road ’had became a ‘road of death’ more and more merchants had left for a new and safe route for the trading. Then, they gradually moved to the south, ‘South Silk Road ’ started to be the leading role on the stage of history.

Briefly, ‘South Silk Road ’ starts from Chengdu, Sichuan, via Ya’an, XiChang, PanZhihua of Sichuan, then entered into Yunnan from  Zhaotong, Dali, Baoshan, Tengchong, Dehong, then entered into Myanmar, though Myanmar, Thailand arrived at India and Middle east.

Maritime Silk Road

This is the extension of the ‘Silk Road’ since ‘Silk Road’ had to pass though some desert, Gobi, big scale of no man’s land, therefore, some merchants choose to do their trade from the sea.

Tea-horse Road

The Ancient Tea Route (Simplified Chinese: 茶马古道) was a network of mule caravan paths winding through the mountains of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It is also referred to as the Southern Silk Road. From around a thousand years ago, the Ancient Tea Route was a trade link from Yunnan, one of the first tea-producing regions: to India via Burma; to Tibet; and to central China via Sichuan Province. In addition to tea, the mule caravans carried salt. It is believed that it was through this trading network that tea (typically tea bricks) spread across China and Asia from its origins in Pu'er county(Pu’er county today), near Simao(Pu’er city today) Prefecture in Yunnan .

   Made in China


In China, the Chinese drink tea at every meal for good health and simple pleasure. Chinese tea consists of tea leaves which have been processed using methods inherited from ancient China. According to popular legend, tea was discovered by Chinese Emperor Shennong in 2737 BCE when a leaf from a Camellia sinensis tree fell into water the emperor was boiling. Tea is deeply woven into the history and culture of China. The beverage is considered one of the seven necessities of Chinese life, along with firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce[clarification needed] and vinegar.
Nowadays we classify tea into five categories, white, green, oolong, Compressed and black. All of these come from varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant. Chinese flower tea (花茶), while popular, is not a true tea. Most Chinese tea is consumed in China and is not exported. Green tea is the most popular type of tea used in China.

Within these main categories of tea are vast varieties of individual beverages. Some researchers have counted more than 700. Others put the number at more than 1,000. Some of the variations are due to different strains of the Camilla plant. The popular Tie Guan Yin 铁观音, for example, is traced back to a single plant discovered in Anxi 安溪 in Fujian Province. Other teas draw some of their characteristics from local growing conditions. The largest factor in the wide variations comes from differences in processing after the tea is harvested. White and green teas are cooked soon after picking to prevent oxidization, often called fermentation, caused by natural enzymes in the leaves. Oolong teas are partially oxidized. Black and red teas are fully oxidized. Other differences come from variations in the processing steps.


Porcelain is generally believed to have originated in China. Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang Dynasty, by the Eastern Han Dynasty (100-200 CE) high firing glazed ceramic wares had developed into porcelain, and porcelain manufactured during the Tang Dynasty period (618–906) was exported to the Islamic world where it was highly prized. Early porcelain of this type includes the tri-color glazed porcelain, or sancai wares. Historian S.A.M. Adshead writes that true porcelain items in the restrictive sense that we know them today could be found in dynasties after the Tang, during the Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, and Qing Dynasty.

By the Sui and Tang dynasties, porcelain had become widely produced. Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas; by the seventeenth century, it was being exported to Europe.


The best and the earliest silk fabric all can be found in China, obviously, China can be called the kingdom of silk. The oldest silk-using in China can b traced back to 6000 B.C. according to the Chinese legend, and, evidence has been found in year 2007, which proved that at least 2500 years ago, silk fabric had been widely used in those royal families.

After it was introduced into Europe, the whole western world from the Queen to the baggers, all crazy for chasing after the silk products.

Silk moths lay eggs on specially prepared paper. The eggs hatch and the caterpillars (silkworms) are fed fresh mulberry leaves. After about 35 days and 4 moltings, the caterpillars are 10,000 times heavier than when hatched, and are ready to begin spinning a cocoon. A straw frame is placed over the tray of caterpillars, and each caterpillar begins spinning a cocoon by moving its head in a "figure 8" pattern. Two glands produce liquid silk and force it through openings in the head called spinnerets. Liquid silk is coated in sericin, a water-soluble protective gum, and solidifies on contact with the air. Within 2–3 days, the caterpillar spins about 1 mile of filament and is completely encased in a cocoon. The silk farmers then kill most caterpillars by heat, leaving some to  metamorphose into moths to breed the next generation of caterpillars.

Silk is one of the best material for clothing that has hardly any match in the world, it is light, lustrous, and durable, resistant to heat, and breathing very well.


In China the history of jade is as long as the civilization history of China. Archaeologists have found jade objects from the early Neolithic period (about 5000 BC), represented by the Hemudu culture in Zhejian Province, and from the middle and late Neolithic period, represented by the Hongshan culture along the Lao River, the Longshan culture along the Yellow River, and the Liangzhu culture in the Tai Lake region. Jade has been ever more popular till today.

There are now two major jade popular in China: Soft jade and hard jade. Soft jade normally can be found in north China such as ‘Hetian Jade’ from XinJiang Province, ‘Youshan Jade’ from Liaoning Province. These jade is mainly for the using of big pieces of jade carving. The gold medal in 2008 Beijing Olympic is made of soft jade which make the soft jade famous again since the ancient times. Hard jade, also known as ‘Jadeite, Feicui 翡翠 ’. the major material is from Myanmar, widely used for the producing of ornaments, such as: rings, earrings, bracelets, which is now considered to be the best jade in China. Since the very limited jade mineral, very difficult cultivation skills and very beautiful color (mainly, jadeite has 5 major colors : Green, Yellow, Purple, Red, Black. Green suppose to be the best color). Some good piece of the jadeite can be sold as millions dollars in auction.

The value of one piece good jade can be much higher than gold even diamond in China, it is not only because of the acceptance of the Chinese people to the jade for centuries, more important is that, Chinese people treated jade as an amulet, it is believed that the luster of the color can reflect the healthy status of ones body, if you are sick, the luster of the jade will get darker than it is in the normal days. It is also believed that jade can keep all the evil spirit away from you. Therefore, Jade or Jadeite are no wonder the best and most popular ornaments and artwork for Chinese people.

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